Gorpenchenko T.Y.; Grigorchuk V.P.; Bulgakov D.V.; Tchernoded G.K.; Bulgakov V.P.
В журнале International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Год: 2019 Том: 20 Номер: 808 Выпуск: 4
Alkaloids attract great attention due to their valuable therapeutic properties. Stepharine, an aporphine alkaloid of Stephania glabra plants, exhibits anti-aging, anti-hypertensive, and anti-viral effects. The distribution of aporphine alkaloids in cell cultures, as well as whole plants is unknown, which hampers the development of bioengineering strategies toward enhancing their production. The spatial distribution of stepharine in cell culture models, plantlets, and mature micropropagated plants was investigated at the cellular and organ levels. Stepharine biosynthesis was found to be highly spatially and temporally regulated during plant development. We proposed that self-intoxication is the most likely reason for the failure of the induction of alkaloid biosynthesis in cell cultures. During somatic embryo development, the toxic load of alkaloids inside the cells increased. Only specialized cell sites such as vascular tissues with companion cells (VT cells), laticifers, and parenchymal cells with inclusions (PI cells) can tolerate the accumulation of alkaloids, and thus circumvent this restriction. S. glabra plants have adapted to toxic pressure by forming an additional transport secretory (laticifer) system and depository PI cells. Postembryonic growth restricts specialized cell site formation during organ development. Future bioengineering strategies should include cultures enriched in the specific cells identified in this study.