Year: 2022, Number: 4, Pages: 64-87
Paleogenomics is known as the whole genome analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA). This paper provides a brief overview of the achievements of paleogenomics, including its history and research methods. In particular, issues of human evolution, hominid (Neanderthal, Denisovans) and modern morphological type humans hybridization, transcontinental migrations of ancient humans from Siberia to America, migrations of peoples of the Yamnaya culture in the vast Eurasian steppes, the origin both of the extinct (Etruscans, Scythians) and of the modern (Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau populations, Avars) peoples are discussed from the perspective of paleogenomic data, domestication of animals and plants, impacts of climate change on biodiversity, conservation biology and taxonomy, and evolution of pathogens. The prospects of evolutionary medicine, aDNA methylation, the use of aDNA from sediments and ephippial eggs, as well as the possibility of restoring extinct species are discussed as directions for the future development of paleogenomics.